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Delhi Agreement and the end of ranarchy (Social)

Political History of Nepal - SLC notes

                The cruel Ranas ruled in Nepal for 104 years. Some of the people were well known about the cruel behavior of Ranas. These people got organized with each other and formed an army (liberation army). The liberation army captured the places of Terai like Bhairahawa, kailali, kanchanpur, Malangwa, Rangeli etc. and formed their own government. They created awareness among the people about the cruel and monopoly behavior of the Ranas . They made the people realize about their rights .They revolted against the Ranas. In this attempt to establish democracy, some of our nepali brothers namely Sukra raj shastri, Ganga lal shrestha , Dasarath chand and Dharma Bhakta Mathema were killed by the Ranas. king Tribhuwan also wanted to help the liberation army . So, he encouraged them for the establishment of  democracy in Nepal and also financially help them. Then, the king asked for asylum in Indian Embassy and flew to India with his family. Then , the prime minister , Mohan shumsher crowned Gyanendra (the second grandson of king Tribhuwan). This act was not supported by India and other countries. At last, the Ranas decided to negotiate with king Tribhuvan and the leaders of the Nepali congress. Hence, an agreement was done in Delhi, India between Ranas, King Tribhuwan and the Nepali Congress. So, this agreement is also known as “tripartite agreement” and also called “Delhi accord”. Finally, On 7th Falgun 2007 B.S. Nepal was declared as a democratic country.
                The major provisions of the Delhi Accord(Agreement) are as follows:
Ø  An elected constituent assembly will frame a democratic constitution within 2 years.
Ø  King Tribhuvan will remain the King of Nepal.
Ø  There will remain an interim cabinet (government) of 10 ministers under the Prime Ministership of Mohan Shumsher of which 5 will be taken from the Nepali congress.
Ø  There will be no restriction to open political organizations. All the political prisoners will be set free and agitators have to hand over all the weapons to the government and stop the movement.

Major events
Ø  2007-11-17          :               Interim constitution was announced.
Ø  2008-7-25            :               Mohan shumsher was forced to resign following the resignation of all
ministers of congress.
Ø  2008-8-01            :               The king established a new council of 14 ministers under the prime
ministership of Matrika Prasad Koirala.
                This cabinet was entrusted with the following responsibilities:
a.      To establish an independent judiciary department.
b.      To implement the civil service effectively.
c.       To hold the election of CA(constituent assembly) within 2009 B.S.
d.      To assure the civil rights of Nepalese.
Ø  2008-10-8            :               Dr. K.I. Singh revolted against the cabinet of M.P. Koirala and after
failing fled to Tibet for refuge.
Ø  Bhadra, 2010      :               Bhimdutta Panta revolted against the government. He was killed by the
Ø  2011-11-30          :               King Tribhuwan died in Switzerland. After his death , King Mahendra
became the king of Nepal.
Ø  2012-10-13          :               Tanka Prasad Acharya was appointed PM, but was forced to resign
within 6 months.
Ø  2014-4-11            :               A cabinet was formed under the prime ministership of Dr. K.I. Singh.
Ø  2016-3-16            :               First elected government under the Prime Ministership of B.P. Koirala
was formed with a 22 member cabinet.
Ø  2017-09-01          :               King Mahendra’s direct rule started or Panchayat system started.

                After the election was held on 7th Falgun 2015B.S., the government of the Nepali Congress was formed under Prime Minister ship of B.P. Koirala with a 22 member cabinet. But King Mahendra was a very ambitious king and wanted to rule by himself . He suspended the parliament and imprisoned B.P. Koirala , all the ministers  and all the political leaders. He imposed the partyless panchayat system and banned all the political parties by accusing misuse of authority, corruption, anarchy in the nation, athreat to national unity, political instability, lack of peace and security in Nepal. Many political leaders fled to India. Many political activist were killed , improsoned or self exiled. Nepalese had to struggle for 30 years to restore democracy.

Major events
Ø  Panchayat system start on 1st Poush 2017 and Panchayat Ministry was formed.
Ø  Nepal was divided into 14 zones and 75 districts.
Ø  New panchayat based constitution was promulgated or made on 1st Poush ,2019 B.S.
Ø  King Mahendra died of heart attack in 2028 B.S. in Diyalo Bungalow.
Ø  Durganand Jha was hanged who threw a bomb at the King’s car in Janakpur and Arbind Kumar Thakur and Dal Singh Thapa were jailed for life. Ramnath Dahal, Naraya Shrestha, Netra Ghimire, Biren Rajbanshi were killed by the Panchayat Government in Sukhani foresh 20258 B.S. Ramlaxman , Captain Yagya Bahadur Thapa and Bhim Narayan Shrestha were killed by the Panchayat government because they were involved in the Timburbote incident. Ratna Kumar Bantawa was shot dead on the bank of the Deumai river of Illam in 2035 B.S. Similarly, Rishi Raj Devkota and Jay Govinda Shah were killed.
Ø  Students protested in Kathmandu for the death of Zulfiakar Ali Bhutto of Pakistan. This movement was against the Panchayat System.
Ø  King Birendra announced the Referendum in 10th Jestha 2036 B.S. and Panchayat system got victory.
Referendum is the process in which the decisions are taken on the basis of the vote of the public.
Ø  Surya Bahadur Thapa was elected as the Prime Minister in 2038B.S.
Ø  Some innocent people including Bir Bahadur Thami and Ile Thami of Piskar of Sindhupalchowk were killed while they were taking part in cultural program. This is known as Piskar Assasination.
Ø  Lokendra Bahadur chand was appointed the Prime Minister when Surya Bahadur Thapa received a vote of no confidence.
Ø  In 2042 B.S. Marich Man Shrestha was appointed the Prime Minister.
Ø   There were several bomb blasts in Kathmandu. Corruption, smuggling and other criminal activities increased in the country.
Ø  Samyukta Bam Morcha was established. Ganeshman Singh was the commander of that movement. Students, teachers, professors, lawyers, doctors, businessmen and civil servants took part in that movement .Media also played a vital role in that movement. Panchayat system tried to suppress the people but they failed.
Ø  King Birendra invited Krishna Prasad Bhattarai, Ganeshman Singh, G.P. Koirala, Sahana Pradhan and R.K. Mainali for negotiation on 26th Chaitra 2046 B.S. The term ‘partyless’ would be removed from the constitution . Again democracy was restored in Nepal and the movement was stopped.

Major events :
Ø  An interim government was formed under the leadership of Krishna Prasad Bhattarai on 16th Jestha 2047 B.S consisting the members of all political parties that had contributed in the mass movement 2046 B.S with a task to frame or make a new constitution and conduct general election.
Ø  The constitution was promulgated and enforced on 23rd karthik 2047 B.S.
Ø  The second historical general election was held in Baisakh 2048 B.S in which the Nepali Congress got the majority.
Ø  A government was formed under the Prime Ministership of Giraja Prasad Koirala.
Ø  Because of the castism, favourism, corruption, dictatorship in the party Mr. G.P Koirala declared mid-term election in 2051 B.S. where non of the parties achieved the clear majority.
Ø  Nepal Communist Party (UML) formed a minority government under the Prime Ministership of Man Mohan Adhikari. This government could not achieve any vote of confidence and was dissolved after 9 months. Then a coaliation government was formed under the premiership of Sher Bahadur Deuba including the Nepali congress, Rastriya Prajatantra Party and Sadbhavana Party.
Ø  Maoist launched its armed people’s war from 1st Falgun, 2052 B.S. from Rolpa and gradually started to affect the other parts of the country.
Ø  All the members of the Royal family were massacred in the Royal Palace on 19th Jestha 2058. Gyanendra ascended the throne as a new King.
Ø  Gyanendra dissolved the parliament on 11th Jestha, 2059. He dismissed the cabinet of Sher Bahadur Deuba on 18th Asoj 2059 . He imprisoned all the political leaders and formed a government under his own chairmanship.
Ø  This act was strongly opposed by Nepali people .
Ø  Seven political parties made a 12 point accord with the maoist and launched the mass movement against the government.
Ø  This mass movement started on 24th Chaitra 2062 B.S and on Baisakh 11 , 2063 the movement stopped when  King Gyanendra returned all executive power to the people. The parliament was restored.
Ø  A government was formed under the Prime Ministership of Mr. Girija Prasad Koirala with the members of seven political parties.
Ø  The parliament made a decision to conduct election , talk with the Maoist, drafting of the Interim Constitution.
Ø  Seven parties and the Maoist reached at 8 point agreement on 2nd Asar 2063. An extensive peace accord was signed between seven parties and the Maoists on 5th Mangsir, 2063. This brought the 10 year people’s war to an end.
Ø  An Interim Constitution was announced on 1st Magh, 2063.
Ø  Maoist combatants were kept in cantonments and an interim government of eight parties including Maoist was formed.
Ø  In the constituent assembly election , Maoist secured majority (120 seats) and a new government was formed under the Prime Ministership of Pushpa Kamal Dahal.


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